England, birthplace of Shakespeare and The Beatles, is a country in the British Isles bordering Scotland and Wales. The capital, London, on the River Thames, is home of Parliament, Big Ben and the 11th-century Tower of London. It's also a multicultural, modern hub for the arts and business. Other large cities are Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Bristol and the university centres of Oxford and Cambridge.
Well-known English prehistoric sites include the stone circles at Stonehenge and Avebury. Evidence of Roman history survives at Hadrian’s Wall and in Bath’s spa. Castles in Northumberland, Warwick and Dover recall the country’s medieval past. Popular outdoor areas are the Lake District, Peak District, Dartmoor and North York Moors national parks, Cornwall’s beaches and the hilly Cotswolds. Modern development of former industrial areas has transformed places such as Manchester’s Lowry arts centre, the Liverpool One leisure complex and London’s Docklands.